Clinical characteristics of non-sleepy obstructive sleep apnea patients: a study in a tertiary care sleep clinic in India

Submitted: April 22, 2024
Accepted: April 23, 2024
Published: May 10, 2024
Abstract Views: 237
PDF_EARLY VIEW: 84
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: 12
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) encompasses a diverse population, manifesting with or without symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness. There is contention surrounding the significance of non-sleepy OSA within clinical contexts and whether routine treatment is warranted. This study aims to evaluate epidemiological and clinical distinctions between sleepy and non-sleepy OSA patients. A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography for OSA assessment at tertiary care hospitals between 2018 and 2023. For 176 of 250 patients, complete polysomnography records with OSA diagnoses were available. Non-sleepy OSA was defined when a patient had an Epworth sleepiness scale score <10 and polysomnography demonstrated an apnea hypopnea index ≥5/hour. Non-sleepy OSA patients were matched with sleepy OSA patients in terms of age and gender distribution (mean age 51.24±13.25 years versus 50.9±10.87 years, male 70.4% versus 73.3%). The sensitivity of STOP-BANG≥3 for the non-sleepy OSA group was 87.7%, 89.3%, and 95.2% for any OSA severity, moderate to severe OSA, and severe OSA, respectively, while the corresponding sensitivity for the sleepy OSA group was 96.5%, 98.6%, and 100% for any OSA severity, moderate to severe OSA, and severe OSA, respectively. A novel symptom scoring tool, HASSUN (hypertension, nocturnal apneas, snoring, sleep disturbance, unrefreshing sleep, and nocturia), demonstrated a sensitivity of over 90% for all severity categories of OSA in both non-sleepy and sleepy OSA groups. The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities did not significantly differ between non-sleepy and sleepy OSA patients. The physiological parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and bicarbonate at baseline, were comparable between the two groups. To conclude, non-sleepy OSA patients are less obese, exhibit fewer symptoms, and have less severe OSA in comparison to sleepy OSA. Non-sleepy OSA patients display a similar likelihood of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities compared to sleepy OSA patients. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular metabolic comorbidities in non-sleepy OSA patients. The proposed HASSUN scoring tool for non-sleepy OSA screening necessitates validation in future studies.

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Ethics Approval

Institute ethics committee clearance was taken vide S. No. IECNMMC/SJH/Thesis/05-2023/14.

How to Cite

Narwade, Ganesh, Manu Madan, Rohit Kumar, Pranav Ish, AJ Mahendran, Rajnish Kaushik, and Nitesh Gupta. 2024. “Clinical Characteristics of Non-Sleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: A Study in a Tertiary Care Sleep Clinic in India”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, May. https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2024.3031.