Assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice measures against tuberculosis in patients in ambulatory department facilities in Pakistan: a cross-sectional analysis

Submitted: December 1, 2022
Accepted: March 22, 2023
Published: April 12, 2023
Abstract Views: 1207
PDF: 261
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Tuberculosis (TB), at present, is the leading infectious etiology of death globally. In Pakistan, there are approximately 510,000 new cases annually, with more than 15,000 of them developing into drug-resistant TB, making the nation the fifth-leading country in TB prevalence in the world. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the focus has drifted away from TB screening, diagnostic and health awareness campaigns, and therapeutic measures endangering knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards TB in our population. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Pakistan to assess the KAP of Pakistani residents attending the adult outpatient departments of public hospitals for any health-related concerns. Our sample size was 856 participants, with a median age of 22 years. Occupation-wise, those who were employed had better knowledge of TB than those who were unemployed [odds ratio (OR): 1.011; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.005-1.8005]. No differences were observed in TB knowledge between those adherents to common preventive practices versus those not adherent (OR: 0.875; 95% CI: 0.757-1.403). More than 90% of participants agreed that TB is dangerous for the community, and the majority opted against stigmatizing TB patients (79.1%). People who could read and write were 3.5 times more likely to have a good attitude towards TB compared to those who could not (OR: 3.596; 95% CI: 1.821-70.230; p=0.037). Similarly, employed subjects had better attitudes compared to unemployed ones (OR: 1.125; 95% CI: 0.498-1.852; p=0.024) and those with better knowledge of TB had a better attitude grade (OR: 1.749; 95% CI: 0.832-12.350; p=0.020). Age, occupation, and educational status were statistically significant among the two groups (p=0.038, p=0.023, p=0.000). Literate subjects had three times better practice towards TB than illiterate subjects (OR: 3.081; 95% CI: 1.869-4.164; p=0.000). Future education and awareness programs should target specific groups, such as the unemployed and illiterate, with practice-focused approaches. Our study outcomes can enable the concerned officials and authorities to take appropriate evidence-based steps to direct the efforts efficiently to curtail the burden of TB in Pakistan and to limit its progression, which could potentially lead our nation to become a multi drug-resistant TB endemic territory.



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Ethics Approval

The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the Punjab Medical College. The Microbiology Department of the Faisalabad Medical University Research Committee provided ethical approval.

How to Cite

Ahmad, Shoaib, Uzzam Ahmed Khawaja, Syed Meeran Haider, Wafaa Binti Mowlabaccus, Anmol Mohan, Asad Ansari, Muhammad Ahmad, Tulika Garg, Hafsa Ahmed, Shkaib Ahmad, Mohammad Yasir Essar, Javier Perez-Fernandez, and George D. Yatzkan. 2023. “Assessing the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Measures Against Tuberculosis in Patients in Ambulatory Department Facilities in Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Analysis”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 94 (1).