Receiving COVID-19 vaccine, hospitalization, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19: A prospective study

<a href="">Free Stock photos by Vecteezy</a>
Submitted: January 5, 2022
Accepted: June 4, 2022
Published: June 24, 2022
Abstract Views: 1030
PDF: 168
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Despite Iraq having started the COVID-19 vaccine in January 2020, there is no official data on vaccination and hospitalization across the country. We aimed to explore the role of the COVID-19 vaccine on the hospitalization and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Iraqi Kurdistan. In this prospective study, patients who were admitted to two COVID-19 hospitals in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2021 were followed-up by the discharge time between August and November 2021. The mean age of the patients was 57.6 (27-98 years) of both genders. Most of the patients were illiterate (69.3%) or had a lower level of education (20.5%). A small percentage of patients had previous thrombotic disorders (4.7%) and close to half of the patients had chronic diseases (44.9%). The patients had mild to moderate (44.9%), moderate-severe (36.2%), and critical (18.9%) status. The median hospitalization day was 9 days (1-45 days). The study found that 91.3% of the COVID-19 hospitalized patients did not receive the vaccine and 26.8% of patients died. We did not find a significant association between receiving vaccination and patients’ outcomes or disease severity. No patients with previous thrombotic disorders received the COVID-19 vaccine. The male patients were more likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccine compared to female patients; 14.55% vs. 4.17%, p=0.0394.  This study showed that most patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospitals have not received the COVID-19 vaccine. A high percentage of the COVID-19 hospitalized patients died of the disease in this region.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Abdulah DM, Saeed MS. The origin and consequences of Sebiran community COVID-19 case. Int J Hum Health Sci 2021;5:355-57. DOI:
World Health Organization. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. 2021. Available from:
Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine. N Engl J Med 2020;383:2603-15. DOI:
Esparza Olcina MJ, de Toledo B J. [Pfizer-BioNTech, la primera vacuna ARNm contra la COVID-19, parece segura y eficaz].[Article in Portuguese]. Evid Pediatr 2021;17:6.
Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet 2021;397:99-111. DOI:
Cromer D, Juno JA, Khoury D, et al. Prospects for durable immune control of SARS-CoV-2 and prevention of reinfection. Nat Rev Immunol 2021;21:395-404. DOI:
Sadarangani M, Marchant A, Kollmann TR. Immunological mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection against COVID-19 in humans. Nat Rev Immunol 2021;21:474-84. DOI:
Abdulah DM. Prevalence and correlates of COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy in the general public in Iraqi Kurdistan: A cross‐sectional study. J Med Virol 2021;93:6722-31. DOI:
Abdulah DM, Mohammedsadiq HA, Liamputtong P. Experiences of nurses amidst giving care to COVID‐19 patients in clinical settings in Iraqi Kurdistan: A qualitative descriptive study. J Clin Nurs 2022;31:294-308. DOI:
Srinivasan BS. The offcial Official Chinese Government Guide to Diagnosis and treatment the novel coronavirus pneumonia. 2020. Available from:
Cabezas C, Coma E, Mora-Fernandez N, et al. Associations of BNT162b2 vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospital admission and death with covid-19 in nursing homes and healthcare workers in Catalonia: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2021;374:n1868. DOI:
Tenforde MW, Self WH, Adams K, et al. Association between mRNA vaccination and COVID-19 hospitalization and disease severity. JAMA 2021;326:2043-54. DOI:
Vasileiou E, Simpson CR, Robertson C, et al. Effectiveness of first dose of COVID-19 vaccines against hospital admissions in Scotland: national prospective cohort study of 5.4 million people. Available at SSRN:
Geng J, Yu X, Bao H, et al. Chronic diseases as a predictor for severity and mortality of COVID-19: a systematic review with cumulative meta-analysis. Front Med (Lausanne) 2021;8:288013. DOI:
Parohan M, Yaghoubi S, Seraji A, et al. Risk factors for mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Aging Male 2020;23:1416-24. DOI:
Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, et al. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Infect 2020;81:e16-e25. DOI:
Buicu A-L, Cernea S, Benedek I, et al. Systemic inflammation and COVID-19 mortality in patients with major noncommunicable diseases: Chronic coronary syndromes, diabetes and obesity. J Clin Med 2021;10:1545. DOI:
Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med 2021;384:403-16. DOI:
Dagan N, Barda N, Kepten E, et al. BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in a nationwide mass vaccination setting. N Engl J Med 2021;384:1412-23. DOI:
Haas EJ, Angulo FJ, McLaughlin JM, et al. Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data. Lancet 2021;397:1819-29. DOI:
Sheikh A, McMenamin J, Taylor B, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Scotland: demographics, risk of hospital admission, and vaccine effectiveness. Lancet 2021;397:2461-2. DOI:
Tahir AI, Ramadhan DS, Taha AA, et al. Public fear of COVID-19 vaccines in Iraqi Kurdistan region: a cross-sectional study. Middle East Curr Psychiatry 2021;28:46. DOI:
Abdulah DM, Qazli SSA, Suleman SK. Response of the public to preventive measures of COVID-19 in Iraqi Kurdistan. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021;15:e17-e25. DOI:

How to Cite

Abdulah, Deldar Morad, and Abbas Muhammed Sadiq Mirza. 2022. “Receiving COVID-19 Vaccine, Hospitalization, and Outcomes of Patients With COVID-19: A Prospective Study”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 93 (1).