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Hereditary hyperhomocysteinemia associated with nephrotic syndrome complicated by artery thrombosis and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: A case report

Paolo Ruggeri, Federica Lo Bello, Francesco Nucera, Michele Gaeta, Francesco Monaco, Gaetano Caramori, Giuseppe Girbino
  • Federica Lo Bello
    University of Messina, Italy
  • Francesco Nucera
    University of Messina, Italy
  • Michele Gaeta
    University of Messina, Italy
  • Francesco Monaco
    University of Messina, Italy
  • Gaetano Caramori
    University of Messina, Italy
  • Giuseppe Girbino
    University of Messina, Italy

Abstract

We present here the case of a 30-year-old man with a long term history of nephrotic syndrome (NS) who developed an episode of acute left main pulmonary artery thrombosis complicated by a lung abscess. During the hospital admission was also identified a concomitant hyperhomocysteinemia. After an atypical resection of the left upper pulmonary lobe and the starting of long term anticoagulation the patient was discharged but did not attend the planned follow up visits until one year later when he was seen again for severe dyspnea and exercise intolerance. At this time chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) was diagnosed by lung perfusion scintigraphy and right heart catheterization. He initially refused the surgical treatment but, after six months, for the presence of worsening dyspnea was referred for bilateral pulmonary endarterectomy followed by a cardio-thoracic rehabilitation program. After a follow-up of seven years the patient is alive and in stable conditions. NS and hyperhomocysteinemia are both known risk factors for pulmonary embolism (PE), but their association with CTEPH is extremely rare. We discuss here the possible mechanisms linking these conditions. CTEPH must be suspected in any patient with NS, with or without hyperhomocysteinemia, and unexplained dyspnea.

Keywords

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism; nephrotic syndrome; hyperhomocysteinemia.

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Submitted: 2017-08-03 21:46:28
Published: 2017-12-19 08:41:40
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Copyright (c) 2017 Paolo Ruggeri, Federica Lo Bello, Francesco Nucera, Michele Gaeta, Francesco Monaco, Gaetano Caramori, Giuseppe Girbino

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