Non-pharmacological remedies for post-viral acute cough



The post-viral acute cough (PAC) is a widespread symptom, mainly in childhood and adolescence, and is usually associated with an acute upper respiratory infection, namely the common cold. The use of cough relievers is, therefore, impressive, as documented by the market data. There are many medical devices and dietary supplements for treating PAC, which contain non-pharmacological components. Ancient people used traditional herbs to treat PAC. Thus, a well-established tradition considers natural remedies as an effective and safe way to relieve PAC. The herbal agents include polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, glucosides, and alkaloids. Also, the European Medicine Agency has recognized the value of plant extracts and other natural substances to treat PAC. Nevertheless, a few studies investigated the role of non-pharmacologic remedies for PAC. There is some evidence for honey, glycerol, Althea officinalis, Drosera rotundifolia, Grindelia, Hedera helix, Pelargonium sidoides, Sambucus nigra, Thymus vulgaris, hyaluronic acid, and saline solutions. However, further rigorous studies should confirm natural products' efficacy and safety to relieve PAC.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Common cold. Availabl from:

Galway NC, Shields MD. The child with an incessant dry cough. Pediatr Resp Rev 2019;30:58-64.

Chang AB, Oppenheimer JJ, Irwin RS. Managing chronic cough as a symptom in children and management algorithms. Chest 2020;158:303-29. DOI:

Finley CR, Chan DS, Garrison S, et al. What are the most common conditions in primary care? Can Fam Phys 2018;64:832-40.

Anderson-James S, Marchant JM, et al. Burden and emergency department management of acute cough in children. J Pediatr Child Health 2018;55:181-7. DOI:

DeGeorge KC, Ring DJ, Dalrymple SN. Treatment of the common cold. Am Fam Physic 2019;100:281-9.

Fokkens W, Lund V, Hopkins C, et al. EPOS2020: European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020. Rhinology 2020;58:S1-464.

Thompson M, Vodicka TA, Blair PS, et al. Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: a systematic review. BMJ 2013;347:f7027.

De Blasio F, Dicpinigaitis PV, Rubin BK, et al. An observational study on cough in children: Epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome. Cough 2012;8:1. DOI:

Goldman RD. Treating cough and cold: Guidance for caregivers of children and youth. Paediatr Child Health 2011;16:564-6. DOI:

Degeorge KC, Ring DJ, Dalrymple SN. Treatment of the common cold. Am Fam Physician 2019;100:281-9.

Morice AH. Over-the-counter cough medicines: new approaches. Pulm Pharmacol Therap 2015;1-3.

Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;2014:CD001831.

Goldman RD. Honey for treatment of cough in children. Can Fam Physician 2014;60:1107-8.

Avner Cohen H, Rozen J, Kristal H, et al. Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 2012;130:465-71.

World Health Organization. Cough and cold remedies for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in young children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.

Cianciosi D, Forbes-Hermandez TY, Afrin S, et al. Phenolic compounds in honey and their associated health benefits: a review. Molecules 2018;23:2322. DOI:

Shadkam MN, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Mozayan MR. A comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and diphenhydramine on nightly cough and sleep quality in children and their parents. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:787–93. DOI:

Cohen HA, Rozen J, Kristal H, et al. Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 2012;130:465-71.

Murgia V, Manti S, Licari A, et al. Upper respiratory tract infection-associated acute cough and the urge to cough: New insights for clinical practice. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol 2020;33:3-13. DOI:

Malesker MA, Callahan-Lyon P, Ireland B, et al. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment for acute cough associated with the common cold: CHEST Expert Panel Report. Chest 2017;152:1021-37. DOI:

Oduwole O, Udoh EE, Oyo-Ita A, Meremikwu MM. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018;2018:CD007094.

Cohen HA, Hoshen M, Gur S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a polysaccharide-resin-honey vased cough syrup as compared to carbocysteine syrup for children with colds: a randomized, single-blinded, multicenter study. World J Pediatr 2017;13:27-33 DOI:

Canciani M, Murgia V, Caimmi D, et al. Efficacy of Grintuss® pediatric syrup in treating cough in children: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ital J Pediatr 2014;40:56. DOI:

Wikström S, Holst E. [Infant botulism – Why honey should be avoided for children up to one year].[Article in Swedish]. Lakartidningen 2017;114:ELMF.

Cox N, Hinkle R. Infant botulism. Am Fam Physician 2002;65:1388–92.

Cohen HA, Rozen J, Kristal H, Lacks Y. Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 2012;130:465-71. DOI:

Lee VS, Humpreys IM, Purcell PL, Davis GE. Manuka honey sinus irrigation for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: A randomized controlled trial. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2017;7:365-72. DOI:

Pasupuleti VR, Sammugam L, Ramesh N, Gan SH. Honey, propolis, and royal jelly: A comprehensive review of their biological actions and health benefits. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:1259510. DOI:

Soromou LW, Zhang Y, Cui Y, et al. Subinhibitory concentrations of pinocembrin exert anti-staphylococcus aureus activity by reducing α-toxin expression. J Appl Microbiol 2013;115:41-9. DOI:

Bosio K, Avanzini C, D'Avolio A, et al. In vitro activity of propolis against Streptococcus pyogenes. Lett Appl Microbiol 2000;3:174-7. DOI:

Borrelli F, Maffia P, Pinto L, et al. Phytochemical compounds involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of propolis extract. Fitoterapia 2002;73:S53-63.

Wu YH, Zhang BY, Qiu LP, et al. Structure properties and mechanisms of action of naturally originated phenolic acids and their derivatives against human viral infections. Curr Med Chem 2017;24:4279-302.

Holmiere S, Valentin R, Marechal P, Mouloungui Z. Esters of oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol): New biobased oligomeric surfactants. J Colloid Interface Sci 2017;487:418-25. DOI:

Eccles R. The powerful placebo in cough studies. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2002;15:303–8. DOI:

Shrivastava R, Carrois F, Pisak M, et al. Clinical efficacy of novel filmogen, antimicrobial, cleaning, fluidizing cough treatment. J Clin Trials 2017;7:318. DOI:

Eccles R, Mallefet P. Soothing properties of glycerol in cough syrups for acute cough due to common cold. Pharmacy (Basel) 2017;5:4. DOI:

World Health Organization. Cough and cold remedies for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in young children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Risk: benefit of OTC cough and cold medicines in children. 2009. Availabel from:

Kamatou GP, Vermaak I, Viljoen AM, Lawrence BM. Menthol: A simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties. Phytochemistry 2013;96:15-25. DOI:

Smith AP, Boden C. Effects of chewing menthol gum on the alertness of healthy volunteers and those with an upper respiratory tract illness. Stress Health 2011;29:138-42.

Gillissen A, Wittig T, Ehmen M, et al. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy and tolerability of GeloMyrtol® forte in acute bronchitis. Drug Res (Stuttg) 2013;63:19-27. DOI:

Birring SS, Brew J, Kilbourn A, et al. Rococo study: a real-world evaluation of an over-the-counter medicine in acute cough (a multicentre, randomised, controlled study). BMJ Open 2017;7:e014112.

Johnson D, Mead R, Kennelty K, Hahn D. Menthol cough drops: cause for concern? J Am Board Fam Med 2018;31:183-91.

Caceres AI, Liu B, Jabba SV, et al. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 channels mediate the anti‐inflammatory effects of eucalyptol. Br J Pharmacol 2017;174:867–79. DOI:

Yu N, Sun Yt, Su XM, et al. Treatment with eucalyptol mitigates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury through suppressing ICAM-1 gene expression. Biosci Rep 2018;38:BSR20171636.

Marchese A, Orhan IE, Daglia M, et al. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature. Food Chemistry 2016;210:402-14. DOI:

Schonknecht K, Krauss H, Jambor J, Fal AM. Treatment of cough in respiratory tract infections - The effect of combining the natural active compounds with thymol. Wiad Lek 2016;69:791-8.

Michie CA, Cooper E. Frankincense and myrrh as remedies in children. J R Soc Med 1991;84:602-5.

Frémont L. Biological effects of resveratrol. Life Sci 2000;66:663-73 DOI:

Baldassarre ME, Di Mauro A, Labellarte G, et al. Resveratrol plus carboxymethyl-β-glucan in infants with common cold: A randomized double-blind trial. Heliyon 2020;6:e03814.

Varricchio AM, Capasso M, della Volpe A, et al. Resveratrol plus carboxymethyl-β-glucan in children with recurrent respiratory infections: A preliminary and real-life experience. Ital J Pediatr 2014;40:93. DOI:

Ialenti A, Di Rosa M. Hyaluronic acid modulates acute and chronic inflammation. Agents Actions 1994;43:44-7. DOI:

Ciprandi G, Gelardi M. [Trattamento delle riniti allergiche e vasomotorie: il ruolo del beclometasone dipropionato e dell’acido ialuronico (ad alto peso molecolare)].[Article in Italina]. Rec Progr Med 2018;109:1-9.

Ciofalo A, Zambetti G, Altissimi G, et al. Pathological and cytological changes of the nasal mucosa in acute rhinosinusitis: the role of hyaluronic acid as supportive therapy. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017;21:4411-8.

Varricchio A, Capasso M, Avvisati F, et al. Inhaled hyaluronic acid as ancillary treatment in children with bacterial acute rhinopharyngitis. J Biol Reg 2014;28:537-43.

Ciprandi G, Gelardi M. Open and clean: the healthy nose. Acta Biomedica 2019;90:S4-6.

Gelardi M, Mezzoli A, Fiorella ML, et al. Nasal irrigation with Lavonase as ancillary treatment of acute rhinosinusitis: a pilot study. J Biol Reg 2009;23:79-84.

Shaikh N, Wald ER. Decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;(12):CD007909.

Marchisio P, Picca M, Torretta S, et al. Nasal saline irrigation in preschool children: a survey of attitudes and prescribing habits of primary care pediatricians working in northern Italy. Ital J Pediatr 2014;40:47. DOI:

King D, Mitchell B, Williams CP, Spurling GKP. saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;(4):CD006821.

Ciprandi G, Cristofolini M, Mira E. Comano thermal water inhalations in the treatment of allergic rhinitis: preliminary results. Eur Annals Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;48:220-3.

La Mantia I, Ciprandi G, Varricchio A, et al. Salsobromo-iodine thermal water: a nonpharmacological alternative treatment for postnasal drip-related cough in children with upper respiratory tract infections. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018;32:41–7.

Cupido GF, Gelardi M, La Mantia I, et al. Broncalt, class II medical device, in patients with acute upper airways disease: a survey in clinical practice. Acta Biomed 2019;90:s24-9.

European Medicine Agency. HMPC monographs: Overview of recommendations for the uses of herbal medicinal products in the paediatric population. Last update: April 2018. London: European Medicine Agency.

Ahmed W, Azmat R, Khan SM, et al. Pharmacological studies of Adhatoda vasica and Calotropis procera as resource of bio-active compounds for various diseases. Pak J Pharm Sci 2018;31:1975-83.

Liu W, Wang Y, He DD, et al. Antitussive, expectorant, and bronchodilating effects of quinazoline alkaloids (±)-vasicine, deoxyvasicine, and (±)-vasicinone from aerial parts of Peganum harmala L. Phytomedicine 2015;22:1088-95. DOI:

Khan I, Ahmad B, Azam S, et al. Pharmacological activities of Justicia adhatoda. Pak J Pharm Sci 2018;31:371-7.

Barth A, Hovhannisyan A, Jamalyan K, Narimanyan M. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine 2015;22:1195-200. DOI:

Paul IM, Beiler JS, Vallati JR, et al. Placebo effect in the treatment of acute cough in infants and toddlers: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr 2014;168:1107-13. DOI:

Gao Y, Kuok KI, Jin Y, Wang R. Biomedical applications of aloe vera. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019;59:S244-56.

Bonaterra GA, Bronischewski K, Hunold P, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of phytohustil® and root extract of Althaea officinalis L. on macrophages in vitro. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:290 DOI:

Mahboubi M. Marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis L.) and its potency in the treatment of cough. Complement Med Res 2020;27:174-83.

Hagiwara K, Wright PR, Tabandera NK, et al. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens. Environ Microbiol 2016;18:2319-25. DOI:

Corrales m, Han JH, Tauscher B. Antimicrobial properties of grape seed extracts and their effectiveness after incorporation into pea starch films. Int J Food Sci Technol 2009;44:425-33. DOI:

Sangdee K, Sangdee A, Srihanam P. Enzyme inhibition and antimicrobial activities of fractionated wild grape seed extracts. Pak J Biol Sci 2020;23:1066-74. DOI:

Tejada S, Pinya S, Martorell M, et al. Potential anti-inflammatory effects of hesperidin from the genus citrus. Curr Med Chem 2018;25:4929-45. DOI:

Dosoky NS, Setzer WN. Biological activities and safety of Citrus spp. essential oils. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19:1966.

Jopcik M, Moravcikova J, Matusikova I, et al. Structural and functional characterisation of a class I endochitinase of the carnivorous sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). Planta 2017;245:313-27. DOI:

Michalko J, Renner T, Mészáros P, et al. Molecular characterization and evolution of carnivorous sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) class Vbeta-1,3-glucanase. Planta 2017;245:77-91. DOI:

Zehl M, Braunberger C, Conrad J, et al. Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 2011;400:2565-76. DOI:

Egan PA, van der Kooy F. Phytochemistry of the carnivorous sundew genus Drosera (Droseraceae) - future perspectives and ethnopharmacological relevance. Chem Biodivers 2013;10:1774-90. DOI:

Voß HW, Michalsen A, Brünjes R. Efficacy and tolerability of a complex homeopathic drug in children suffering from dry cough-A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Drug Res (Stuttg) 2018;68:444-9. DOI:

Weber W, Taylor JA, Vander Stoep A, et al. Echinacea purpurea for prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:1021-6. DOI:

Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(2):CD000530.

Wagner L, Cramer H, Klose P, et al. Herbal medicine for cough: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Forsch Komplem 2015;22:359-68.

Shah SA, Sander S, White CM, et al. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007;7:473-80. DOI:

Paul IM, Beiler JS, King TS, et al. Vapor rub, petrolatum, and no treatment for children with nocturnal cough and cold symptoms. Pediatrics 2010;126:1092–9. DOI:

Pastorino G, Cornara L, Soares S, et al. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytother Res 2018;32:2323‐39.

Ciprandi G, Bellussi LM, Passali GC, et al. HMGB1 in nasal inflammatory diseases: a reappraisal 30 years after its discovery. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2020;16:457‐463.

Tanaka H, Hasegawa T, Matsushita M, et al. Quantitative evaluation of ocular anti-inflammatory drugs based on measurements of corneal temperature in rabbits: dexamethasone and glycyrrhizin. Ophthalmic Res 1987;19:213‐20.

Akamatsu H, Komura J, Asada Y, Niwa Y. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of glycyrrhizin: effect on neutrophil functions including reactive oxygen species generation. Planta Med 1991;57:119‐21.

Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, et al. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species. Phytother Res 2008 22:141‐8.

Kamei J, Nakamura R, Ichiki H, Kubo M. Antitussive principles of Glycyrrhizae radix, a main component of the Kampo preparations Bakumondo-to (Mai-men-dong-tang). Eur J Pharmacol 2003;469:159-63. DOI:

Yanagawa Y, Ogura M, Fujimoto E, Shono S, Okuda E. Effects and cost of glycyrrhizin in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in members of the Japanese maritime self-defense force: Preliminary report of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, alternate-day treatment assignment clinical trial. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2004;65:26-33. DOI:

Reta GF, Chiaramello AI, García C, et al. Derivatives of grindelic acid: from a non-active natural diterpene to synthetic antitumor derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 2013;67:28-38. DOI:

Theisen LL, Erdelmeier AJ, Spoden GA, et al. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana bark extract: Characterization and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and human papillomavirus. PLoS One 2014;9:e88062.

Alanija M, Shalashvili K, Sagareishvili T, et al. Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora. Georgian Med News 2013;222:69-72.

Beikert FC, Schonfeld BS, Frank U, Augustin M. Antiinflammatory potential of seven plant extracts in the ultraviolet erythema test. A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Hautarzt 2013;64:40-6. DOI:

Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, Doniec Z, Schönknecht K, Almgren-Rachtan A. The herbal medicine containing of ivy leaf dry extract in the treatment of productive cough in children. Wiad Lek 2020;73:668-73. DOI:

Kruttschnitt E, Wegener T, Zahner C, Henzen-Bücking S. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of ivy leaf (Hedera helix) cough syrup compared with acetylcysteine in adults and children with acute bronchitis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020;2020:1910656. DOI:

Khan MF, Akram M, Akhter N, et al. The evaluation of efficacy and safety of cough (EMA) granules used for upper respiratory disorders. Pak J Pharm Sci 2018;31:S2617-22.

Büechi S, Vögelin R, von Eiff MM, et al. Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005;12:328-32.

Fraternale D, Flamini G, Ascrizzi R. In vitro anticollagenase and antielastase activities of essential oil of Helichrysum italicum subsp. Italicum (Roth) G. Don. J Med Food 2019;22:1041-6. DOI:

Antunes Viegas D, Palmeira-de-Oliveira A, Salgueiro L, et al. Helichrysum italicum: from traditional use to scientific data. Ethnopharmacol 2014;151:54-65.

Viegas DA, Plameira-de-Oliveira A, Salgueiro L, et al. Helichrysum italicum: From traditional use to scientific data. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;151:54-65. DOI:

Nowakowska A, Caputa M, Rogalska J. Defence against oxidative stress in two species of land snails (Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa) subjected to estivation. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 2011;315:593-601. DOI:

Greistorfer S, Klepal W, Cyran N, et al. Snail mucus - glandular origin and composition in Helix pomatia. Zoology (Jena) 2017;122:126-38. DOI:

Cutillo F, D'Abrosca B, Dellagreca M, et al. Terpenoids and phenol derivatives from Malva silvestris. Phytochemistry 2006;67:481-5. DOI:

Popoola OK, Elbagory AM, Ameer F, Hussein AA. Marrubiin. Molecules 2013;18:9049-60. DOI:

Rezgui M, Majdoub N, Mabrouk B. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of marrubiin, extracts and essential oil from Marrubium vulgare L. against pathogenic dermatophyte strains. J Mycol Med 2020;30:100927. DOI:

Amri B, Martino E, Vitulo F, et al. Marrubium vulgare L. leave extract: Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and wound healing properties. Molecules 2017;22:1851. DOI:

McKay DL, Blumberg JB. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita). Phytother Res 2006;20:619-33. DOI:

Ben-Arye E, Dudai N, Eini A, et al. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in primary care: a randomized study using aromatic herbs. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:690346. DOI:

Carlassare M. [Proposal for the Pharmacopeia: tolu balsam fluid extract].[Article in Italian]. Boll Chim Farm 1980;119:731-7.

Oh JH, Ha IJ, Lee MY, et al. Identification and metabolite profiling of alkaloids in aerial parts of Papaverrhoeas by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 2018;41:2517-27. DOI:

Qidwai W, Alim SR, Dhanani RH, et al. Use of folk remedies among patients in Karachi Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2003;15:31-3.

Martin D, Konrad M, Adarkwah CC, Kostev K. Reduced antibiotic use after initial treatment of acute respiratory infections with phytopharmaceuticals- A retrospective cohort study. Postgrad Med 2020;20:1-7

Min BG, Park SM, Choi YW, et al. Effects of Pelargonium sidoides and Coptis Rhizoma 2:1 mixed formula (PS+CR) on ovalbumin-induced asthma in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020;2020:9135637. DOI:

Wagner L, Cramer H, Klose P, et al. Herbal medicine for cough: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Forsch Komplem 2015;22:359-68. DOI:

Basholli-Salihu M, Schuster R, Hajdari A, et al. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp. Pharm Biol 2017;55:1553-60. DOI:

Bottoni M, Milani F, Colombo L, et al. Using medicinal plants in Valmalenco (Italian alps): from tradition to scientific approaches. Molecules 2020;25:4144. DOI:

De Cassia Israel Cardoso F, Peruzzo Apolinario P, da Silva Cunha Breder J, et al. A protocol for systematic review of Plantago major L. effectiveness in accelerating wound-healing in animal models. Syst Rev 2019;8:337. DOI:

Zeng X, Guo F, Ouyang D. A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of aucubin. Fitoterapia 2020;140:104443. DOI:

Possebon L, de Souza Lima Lebron I, Furlan da Silva L, et al. Anti-inflammatory actions of herbal medicines in a model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by cigarette smoke. Biomed Pharmacother 2018;99:591-7. DOI:

Najafian Y, Hamedi SS, Farshchi MK, et al. Plantago major in traditional Persian medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review. Electron Physician 2018;10:6390-9. DOI:

Arruda-Silva F, Nascimento MV, Luz AB, et al. Polygala molluginifolia A. St.-Hil. and Moq. prevent inflammation in the mouse pleurisy model by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. Int Immunopharmacol 2014;19:334-41. DOI:

Zhao X, Cui Y, Wu P, et al. Polygalae radix: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. Fitoterapia 2020;147:104759. DOI:

Kis B, Avram S, Pavel IZ, et al. Recent advances regarding the phytochemical and therapeutic uses of Populus nigra L. buds. Plants (Basel) 2020;9:e1464.

Pobłocka-Olech L, Inkielewicz-Stepniak I, Krauze-Baranowska M. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of the buds from different species of Populus in human gingival fibroblast cells: Role of bioflavanones. Phytomedicine 2019;56:1-9. DOI:

Cortez RE, Gonzalez de Mejia E. blackcurrants (ribes nigrum): a review on chemistry, processing, and health benefits. J Food Sci 2019;84:2387-401. DOI:

Nakaishi H, Matsumoto H, Tominaga S, Hirayama M. Effects of black current anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:553-62.

Ferlemi AV, Lamari FN. Berry leaves: An alternative source of bioactive natural products of nutritional and medicinal value. Antioxidants (Basel) 2016;5:17. DOI:

Chrubasik C, Roufogalis BD, Müller-Ladner U, Chrubasik S. A systematic review on the Rosa canina effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res 2008;22:725-33. DOI:

Ayati Z, Amiri MS, Ramezani M, et al. Phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological profile of rose hip: A review. Curr Pharm Des 2018;24:4101-24. DOI:

Ghorbani A, Esmaeilizadeh M. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components. J Tradit Complement Med 2017;7:433-40. DOI:

Jakovljević M, Jokić S, Molnar M, et al bioactive profile of various Salvia officinalis L. preparations. Plants (Basel) 2019;8:55. DOI:

Rakover Y, Ben-Arye E, Goldstein LH. [The treatment of respiratory ailments with essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants].[Article in Hebrew]. Harefuah 2008;147:783-8, 838.

Młynarczyk K, Walkowiak-Tomczak D, Łysiak GP. Bioactive properties of Sambucus nigra L. as a functional ingredient for food and pharmaceutical industry. J Funct Foods 2018;40:377-90. DOI:

Porter RS, Bode RF. A review of the antiviral properties of black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) products. Phytother Res 2017;31:533-54. DOI:

Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S. A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res 2010;24:1-8. DOI:

Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res 2004;32:132-40. DOI:

Tiralongo E, Wee SS, Lea RA. Elderberry supplementation reduces cold duration and symptoms in air-travellers: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrients 2016;8:182. DOI:

Harnett J, Oakes K, Carè J, et al. The effects of Sambucus nigra berry on acute respiratory viral infections: A rapid review of clinical studies. Adv Integr Med 2020;7:240-6. DOI:

Hawkins J, Baker C, Cherry L, Dunne E. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med 2019;42:361-5. DOI:

Pasdaran A, Pasdaran A, Sheikhi D. Volatile oils: Potential agents for the treatment of respiratory infections. In: K Jon, Rai M, editors. The microbiology of respiratory system infections. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2016. p. 237-61.

Fani M, Kohanteb J. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against major oral pathogens. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017;22:660-6. DOI:

Kemmerich B, Eberhardt R, Stammer H. Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 2006;56:652-60.

Kemmerich B. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 2007;57:607-15

Büechi S, Vögelin R, von Eiff MM, et al. Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005;12:328-32. DOI:

Jabeur I, Martins N, Barros L, et al. Contribution of the phenolic composition to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor potential of Equisetum giganteum L. and Tilia platyphyllos scop. Food Funct 2017;8:975-98. DOI:

Calderón-Montaño JM, Burgos-Morón E, Pérez-Guerrero C, López-Lázaro M. A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol. Mini Rev Med Chem 2011;11:298-344. DOI:

Navarro M, Arnaez E, Moreira I, et al. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Uncaria tomentosa commercial bark products. Antioxidants (Basel) 2019;8:339. DOI:

Della Valle V. Uncaria tomentosa. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017;152:651-7.

Almeida IV, Soares LC, Lucio FT, et al. Chemotherapeutical effects of the herbal medicine Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. Genet Mol Res 2017;16:gmr16039782.

Carvalho MV, Penido C, Siani AC, et al. Investigations on the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of the leaves of Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J.F. Gmelin. Inflammopharmacology 2006;14:48-56. DOI:


Pneumology - Reviews
common cold, post-viral acute cough, non-pharmacological remedy, honey, glycerol, herbal medicines
  • Abstract views: 349

  • PDF: 119
How to Cite
Ciprandi, Giorgio, and Maria Angela Tosca. 2021. “Non-Pharmacological Remedies for Post-Viral Acute Cough”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, August.