Secondary prevention advices after cardiovascular index event: From drug prescription to risk factors control in real world practice
The present study aims at evaluating the achievement of blood pressure, lipid and blood glucose targets, healthy lifestyle changes and appropriate drug prescription/adherence in patients attending secondary prevention/CR ambulatory visit after index cardiovascular event in a time period ranging 1 to 5 year. At ambulatory visit, a predetermined set of data collection was used, including demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits, type and time of index event, current symptoms, physical sign, biochemistry and current medical treatment (including type and dosage). Cardiovascular risk profile (smoking habits, physical activity and body weight), secondary prevention goals (LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, resting heart rate, glycated haemoglobin level) and the use of recommended drugs were also evaluated and categorized. Study population consisted of 800 patients [644 men (84.5%), aged 69Â±10.9 years)]. Cardiovascular index events were coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (20%) ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (28%), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (21%) and stable angina (13%) by unstable angina (13%) and stroke (5%). About 30% of patients was symptomatic (angina or dyspnoea) at the time of ambulatory visit. Major comorbidities were hypertension (73%), dyslipidaemia (64%) and diabetes (40%). More than 80% of patients achieved target levels for blood pressure. Patients that have participated to cardiac rehabilitation programmes after cardiovascular index event showed best achievement in blood pressure target (83.8% vs 76.8%, p=0.02). LDL-cholesterol target (<70 mg/dl) was achieved in about 2/3 of patients; HbA1c target (<7%) was achieved in 56.4% of diabetic population. About 75% of study cohort was treated with RAAS inhibitors, 85% with beta-blockers, 92% with statins and 87% with acetylsalicylic acid. All drugs were increasingly adopted from index event. Implementing secondary prevention guidelines into the â€˜real worldâ€™ clinical practice in "late" interval from 1 to 5 years after a cardiovascular event improved risk factors control and appropriate drug prescription. Whether these improvements translated into prognostic advantages remains to be elucidated.
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