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The impact of gender in cardiovascular medicine: Lessons from the gender/sex-issue in heart failure

Alberto M. Marra, Andrea Salzano, Michele Arcopinto, Lucrezia Piccioli, Valeria Raparelli
  • Andrea Salzano
    - Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences - University of Leicester, NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Centre, United Kingdom
  • Michele Arcopinto
    Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Italy
  • Lucrezia Piccioli
    Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Italy
  • Valeria Raparelli
    - Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine - McGill University Health Centre, Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute, Montreal, Italy

Abstract

Heart Failure (HF) is a major healthcare issue, given its high prevalence and incidence, the rate of comorbidities, the related high health-care costs and its poor outcome. In the last years mounting evidence revealed several differences between men and women affected by this clinical condition. Apart from the well-known difference in phenotype (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) occurs more commonly in men, and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is more frequent in women) other relevant sex-related issues dwell upon epidemiology, presentation, risk stratification and management. These differences shed new lights on the possibility to consider HF as a prototype of the impact of gender/sex issue in cardiovascular medicine. A call for action and future strategies might help in the achievement of a cleaver patient-care.

Keywords

Heart Failure; sex; gender.

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Submitted: 2018-08-13 08:02:14
Published: 2018-10-11 11:37:53
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Copyright (c) 2018 Alberto M. Marra, Andrea Salzano, Michele Arcopinto, Lucrezia Piccioli, Valeria Raparelli

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