The impact of gender in cardiovascular medicine: Lessons from the gender/sex-issue in heart failure


  • Alberto M. Marra | IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.
  • Andrea Salzano - Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences - University of Leicester, NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Centre, United Kingdom.
  • Michele Arcopinto Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Italy.
  • Lucrezia Piccioli Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Italy.
  • Valeria Raparelli - Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine - McGill University Health Centre, Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute, Montreal, Italy.


Heart Failure (HF) is a major healthcare issue, given its high prevalence and incidence, the rate of comorbidities, the related high health-care costs and its poor outcome. In the last years mounting evidence revealed several differences between men and women affected by this clinical condition. Apart from the well-known difference in phenotype (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) occurs more commonly in men, and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is more frequent in women) other relevant sex-related issues dwell upon epidemiology, presentation, risk stratification and management. These differences shed new lights on the possibility to consider HF as a prototype of the impact of gender/sex issue in cardiovascular medicine. A call for action and future strategies might help in the achievement of a cleaver patient-care.



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Cardiology - Reviews
Heart Failure, sex, gender.
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How to Cite
Marra, Alberto M., Andrea Salzano, Michele Arcopinto, Lucrezia Piccioli, and Valeria Raparelli. 2018. “The Impact of Gender in Cardiovascular Medicine: Lessons from the gender/Sex-Issue in Heart Failure”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 88 (3).

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