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Middle lobe syndrome: An exceptional presentation of concomitant lepidic adenocarcinoma and bronchial anthracofibrosis

Shekhar Kunal, Sudhir Jain, Ashok Shah
  • Shekhar Kunal
    University of Delhi, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, India
  • Sudhir Jain
    Nayati Medicity, Department of Pathology, India


Lepidic adenocarcinoma previously known as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a non-small cell lung cancer with an indolent presentation. Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF) is caused by long-standing exposure to biomass fuel smoke often in poorly ventilated kitchen. Middle lobe syndrome (MLS) due to BAF is not uncommon however, lepidic adenocarcinoma then known as BAC, presenting as MLS has been documented only once before in the Polish literature. A 68-year-old never-smoker female with biomass fuel smoke exposure presented with cough and breathlessness. Imaging revealed MLS. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy visualised bluish-black hyperpigmentation with narrowing and distortion of right middle lobe bronchus suggestive of BAF. Transbronchial biopsy confirmed presence of lepidic adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of lepidic adenocarcinoma and BAF presenting as MLS. 


Biomass fuel smoke exposure; bronchial anthracofibrosis: lepidic adenocarcinoma; fibreoptic bronchoscopy; high resolution computed tomography.

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Submitted: 2017-06-05 18:46:02
Published: 2017-12-19 11:46:50
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