Gender differences in treatment of Coronavirus Disease-2019


  • Immacolata Ambrosino | Local Healthcare Unit of Bari, Health District 10, Italy.
  • Elena Barbagelata Department of Internal Medicine, Lavagna Hospital, Genoa, Italy.
  • Graziamaria Corbi Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise; Gender Medicine and Aging (GEMEA) Group of the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (SIGG), Italy.
  • Tiziana Ciarambino Department of Internal Medicine, Marcianise Hospital, ASL Caserta, Italy.
  • Cecilia Politi Head of Gender Medicine Area F.A.D.O.I. (Federazione delle Associazioni dei Dirigenti Ospedalieri Internisti), Isernia, Italy.
  • Anna Maria Moretti President of GISeG, Italian Group for Health and Gender, Bari, Italy.


Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is the worst worldwide pandemic with more than 12,000,000 cases and 560,000 deaths until 14th July 2020. Men were more infected by COVID-19 than women, and male subjects with underlying conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases developed a severe form of the affection, with increased mortality rate. Many factors can contribute to the disparity in disease outcomes, such as hormone-specific reaction and activity of X-linked genes, which modulate the innate and adaptive immune response to virus infection. Until now, only the Remdesivir was approved by FDA (Food Drug Administration) for COVID-19 treatment, although several clinical trials are ongoing worldwide also on other drugs. In this review, we analyzed published studies on several drugs (chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir in combination, tocilizumab, plasma, and immunoglobulins) with some efficacy to COVID-19 in humans, and evaluated if there were a gender analysis of the available data. In our opinion, it is essential to report data about COVID-19 disaggregated by sex, age, and race, because the knowledge of gender differences is fundamental to identify effective and customized treatments to reduce hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and mortality.



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COVID-19 - Collection of articles on the Coronavirus outbreak
Gender, differences, treatment, COVID-19
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How to Cite
Ambrosino, Immacolata, Elena Barbagelata, Graziamaria Corbi, Tiziana Ciarambino, Cecilia Politi, and Anna Maria Moretti. 2020. “Gender Differences in Treatment of Coronavirus Disease-2019”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 90 (4).

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